Another approach to international business is licensing. Important point, license agreements entitle one company to produce or market another company's product or use its technology in return for a royalty or fee. Sounds good with our company. Here's an example – a US business may obtain the rights to manufacture and sell a Scandinavian skin lotion in the United States, using the Scandinavian formula and packaging design. The US company would be responsible for promoting and distributing the product, and it would pay the Scandinavian company a percentage of its income from sales in exchange for the products rights.
Licensing deals can also work the other way, with the US company acting as the licenseer and the overseas company as the licensee. Another important point, the US firm would avoid the shipping costs, trade barriers, and uncertainties associated with trying to enter other markets, but it would still receive a portion of the revenue from overseas sales. Moreover, licensing agreements are not restricted to international business. A company can also license its products or technology to other companies in its domestic market.
Just going to expand a little on franchising. This technique is getting expensive everyday. Franchising is another was to expand into foreign markets. With a franchise agreement, the franchisee obtains the rights to duplicate a specific product or service (ex. Restaurant, photocopy shop, or a video rental store). And the company selling the franchise obtains a royalty fee in exchange. Holiday Inn WorldWide has used this approach to reach customers in over 60 countries. The point is that by franchising the operation, a company can minimize the costs and risks of global expansion and bypass certain trade restrictions.